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Religion and Foreign Affairs
Edited by Dennis R. Hoover and Douglas M. Johnston
The role of religion in foreign policy debates, while never absent, has often been sidelined by popular prejudices and secular demands. The global resurgence of religion and the threat of religiously-motivated terrorism have prompted new recognition of the need for careful analysis and candid dialogue about the role of religion in public life worldwide. In recent years, scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have consistently reflected upon the role of religion in foreign policy, resulting in a vast, rich array of resources important for moving forward in an increasingly pluralistic world.
Dennis Hoover and Douglas Johnston here present the writings of leading scholars, revealing distinctive approaches to religion and global politics. Religion and Foreign Affairs offers readers a broad selection of essays, ranging across cultures and worldviews. From the ethics of force and peacemaking to globalization and American foreign policy, this compendium provides a solid introduction to the field of religion and foreign affairs that will stimulate discussion and encourage intelligent practice.
1. Religion and the Global Agenda: From the Margins to the Mainstream?
Dennis R. Hoover and Douglas M. Johnston
SECTION I: Secularization, Desecularization, and the Disciplines of International Affairs
2. The Meaning of Secularism
3. The Desecularization of the World: A Global Overview
Peter L. Berger
4. The Challenge of September 11 to Secularism in International Relations
5. Rethinking the Role of Religion in Changing Public Spheres: Some Comparative Perspectives
Rosalind I. J. Hackett
6. Kicking the Secularist Habit: A Six-Step Program
SECTION II: Theoretical Foundations from Antiquity
7. "Melian Dialogue": History of the Peloponnesian War
8. The Return of Ancient Times: Why the Warrior Politics of the Twenty-First Century Will Demand a Pagan Ethos
Robert D. Kaplan
9. Unrealistic Realism: A Reflection on Robert D. Kaplan's "Warrior Politics"
Dennis R. Hoover
10. Excerpts from Book 19: City of God
Augustine 11. Augustine's Political Realism
12. "Really Existing" Scriptures: On the Use of Sacred Text in International Affairs
John A. Rees
13. Isaiah's Vision of Human Security: Virtue-Ethics and International Politics
Scott M. Thomas
SECTION III: Ethics of Force
14. Of War (Four Articles): Summa Theologica
15. Just War Tradition: Is It Credible?
John Howard Yoder
16. Moral Clarity in a Time of War
17. War and Statecraft: An Exchange
Rowan Williams and George Weigel
18. Torture: A Just War Perspective
James Turner Johnson
19. The New Jihad and Islamic Tradition
SECTION IV: Religion and Conflict
20. Terror Mandated by God
21. The Clash of Civilizations?
Samuel P. Huntington
22. Challenging Huntington
Richard E. Rubenstein and Jarle Crocker
23. Memo to the State: Religion and Security
24. The Politics of Persecuted Religious Minorities
25. Religious Freedom: Good for What Ails Us?
Brian J. Grim
26. How Shall We Study Religion and Conflict?: Challenges and Opportunities in the Early Twenty-First Century
John D. Carlson and Matt Correa
SECTION V: Religion and Peacemaking
27. Religion and Global Affairs: Religious "Militants for Peace"
R. Scott Appleby
28. Faith-Based Diplomacy: An Ancient Idea Newly Emergent
Brian Cox and Daniel Philpott
29. Military Chaplains: Bridging Church and State
Douglas M. Johnston
30. Religion as Destroyer and Creator of Peace: A Postmortem on Failed Peace Processes
31. Catholic Peacemaking, 1991-2005: The Legacy of Pope John Paul II
32. The Potential for Peacebuilding in Islam: Toward an Islamic Concept of Peace Hisham Soliman
SECTION VI: Religion, Globalization, and Transnationalism
33. Jihad vs. McWorld
34. Religion and Globalization
35. Transnational Religious Actors and International Politics
36. Transnational Religious Connections
Robert Wuthnow and Stephen Offutt
37. European Politics Gets Old-Time Religion
Timothy A. Byrnes
SECTION VII: Religion and Economic Development
38. Max Weber Is Alive and Well, and Living in Guatemala: The Protestant Ethic Today
Peter L. Berger
39. Inspiring Development in Fragile States
40. New House Rules: Christianity, Economics, and Planetary Living
41. Islam, Globalization, and Economic Performance in the Middle East
Marcus Noland and Howard Pack
42. Development, Religion, and Women's Roles in Contemporary Societies
SECTION VIII: Religion, Democracy, and the State
43. Separation of Religion and State in the Twenty-First Century: Comparing the Middle East and Western Democracies
Jonathan Fox and Shmuel Sandler
44. Rethinking Religious Establishment and Liberal Democracy: Lessons from Israel
Steven V. Mazie
45. Christianity and Democracy: The Pioneering Protestants
Robert D. Woodberry and Timothy S. Shah
46. The Rise of "Muslim Democracy"
47. Public Theology and Democracy's Future
Max L. Stackhouse
48. Public Religion, Democracy Promotion, and U.S. Foreign Policy
Thomas F. Farr
SECTION IX: Religious Freedom and Human Rights
49. Debating International Human Rights: The "Middle Ground" for Religious Participants
Paul A. Brink
50. Religious Liberty and Human Dignity: A Tale of Two Declarations
Kevin J. Hasson
51. Roman Catholicism and the Faith-Based Movement for Global Human Rights
Allen D. Hertzke
52. Patterns and Contexts of Religious Freedom and Persecution
53. Does the Human Right to Freedom of Conscience, Religion, and Belief Have Special Status?
54. Balancing Religious Freedom and Cultural Preservation
55. Soul Wars: New Battles, New Norms
John Witte, Jr.
SECTION X: Religion and the Future of U.S. Foreign Policy
56. Religion and International Affairs
57. Faith and Diplomacy
58. Religion and American Foreign Policy
59. Methodology, Metrics, and Moral Imperatives in Religious Freedom Diplomacy
Robert A. Seiple
List of Credits
"An impressive, timely compilation of some of the best writings on religion and foreign affairs. Hoover and Johnston provide a critical overview and a helpful division of the articles into key issues areas, including secularization, democracy, conflict, development, human rights, globalization and peacemaking. Students and teachers of religion and global politics will find the volume immensely valuable as a unified source for grappling with the complexities of this topic."
—Monica Duffy Toft, Associate Professor of Public Policy and Director, Initiative on Religion in International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
"Given the tectonic movements of the 21st century, scholars of international relations, and their students, have long needed a solid collection of historic writing on the role of religion in foreign affairs. They have what they need in Hoover and Johnston's fine compilation."
—Andrew Natsios, Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy, Georgetown University
Dennis R. Hoover is Vice President for Research and Publications at the Institute for Global Engagement. He also serves as executive director of the Center on Faith & International Affairs and is the editor of the Center's journal, The Review of Faith & International Affairs.
Douglas M. Johnston is the president and founder of the International Center for Religion and Diplomacy and the author of Religion, Terror, and Error: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Challenge of Spiritual Engagement.