The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible created by Jews seeking a place of legitimacy for diaspora Jewishness and faith among the traditions of Hellenistic culture, was a monumental religious and cultural achievement.
This Greek Old Testament, in its original form and revised versions, provided the scriptural basis for Judaism in the Greek-speaking diaspora, enabled the emergence and spread of Christianity, and influenced translations of the Bible into African and European languages. Over time, however, the Septuagint’s relevance faded for Jews, and the Hebrew text eventually reasserted its dominance within Judaism. This led many to neglect the Septuagint as an authentic witness to the biblical tradition. But the Septuagint remained important, inspiring biblical writings and further translations into Latin, Coptic, and Armenian. In combination with the Qumran biblical texts, it provides yet further indication of the multivocal state of the Hebrew Bible around the turn of the eras and proves to be a text of continuous interest for biblical scholarship and cultural-historical studies.
Siegfried Kreuzer’s Introduction to the Septuagint presents, in English, the most extensive introduction of the Septuagint to date. It offers comprehensive overviews of the individual biblical writings, including the history of research, current findings and problems, and perspectives for future research. Additionally, this survey presents a history of the Septuagint in its Greco-Hellenistic background, theories of its genesis, the history of its revisions, its lore in antiquity, and an overview of the most important manuscripts and witnesses of the convoluted transmission history of the text. The text includes extensive bibliographies that show the ongoing interest in Septuagint studies and provide a reliable basis for future studies.
A collaboration representing multiple nationalities, professional perspectives, and denominational traditions, this dependable guide invites newcomers and experts alike to venture into the rich world of one of the most influential works of literature in history.
IntroductionThe Origins and Transmission of the Septuagint Siegfried KreuzerOverview of Textual Witnesses to the Septuagint Siegfried Kreuzer / Marcus Sigismund1. Pentateuch1.0. From the Torah to Nomos: Perspectives of Research on the Greek Pentateuch Martin Rösel1.1. Genesis Martina Kepper1.2. Exodos/Exodus Peter Schwagmeier1.3. Levitikon/Leviticus Martin Vahrenhorst1.4. Arithmoi/Numeri/NumbersGilles Dorival1.5. Deuteronomion/Deuteronomium/Deuteronomy Melvin K. H. Peters2. Historical Books2.1. Jesus/Josue/Joshua Cornelis G. den Hertog2.2. Kritai/Iudices/Judges Natalio Fernández Marcos2.3. Ruth Eberhard Bons2.4. The Books of Kingdoms/Reigns2.4.1–2. Basileion I and II / 1–2 Kingdoms / 1–2 SamuelPhilippe Hugo2.4.3. Basileion III / 3 Kingdoms / 1 Kings.Martin Meiser2.4.4. Basileion IV / 4 Kingdoms / 2 KingsJulio Trebolle-Barreira2.5. Paraleipomenon I and II / 1–2 Chronica / 1–2 ChroniclesAdrian Schenker2.6.1. Esdras I / 1 Esdras / 3 EzraDieter Böhler2.6.2. Esdras II / 2 Esdras / Ezra-Nehemiah Dieter Böhler3. Later Historical Books and Narratives 3.1. Esther / The Book of Esther Kristin De Troyer3.2. Judith / The Book of Judith Helmut Engel3.3. Tobit / The Book of Tobit / Tobias Katrin Hauspie3.4. The Books of the Maccabees3.4.1. Makkabaion I / 1 MaccabeesMichael Tilly3.4.2. Makkabaion II / 2 Maccabees Tobias Nicklas3.4.3. Makkabaion III / 3 Maccabees Wolfgang Orth3.4.4. Makkabaion IV / 4 MaccabeesRobert J. V. Hiebert4. Psalms and Odes4.1. Psalmoi / The Book of PsalmsEberhard Bons / Ralph Brucker4.2. Odai / Odai / The Book of Odes Ioan Chirilă / Siegfried Kreuzer4.3. Psalmoi Solomontos / Psalms of Solomon Felix Albrecht5. Wisdom Books 5.1. Paroimiai / Proverbia / Proverbs of Solomon Hans-Winfried Jüngling5.2. Ekklesiastes / Qohelet / EcclesiastesPeter J. Gentry with Yun-Yeong Yi5.3. Asma / Canticum Canticorum / Song of SongsEva Schulz-Flügel5.4. Job Markus Witte5.5. Sophia Solomonos / Sapientia Salomonis / Wisdom of SolomonHelmut Engel5.6. Sophia Sirach / Ekklesiasticus / The Wisdom of Jesus Son of SirachFrank Ueberschaer6. Prophetic Books6.1. Dodekapropheton / The Twelve Prophets6.1.0. Dodekapropheton / The Twelve Prophets: An OverviewCécile Dogniez6.1.1. Osee/HoseaJan Joosten6.1.2. Amos Eberhard Bons6.1.3. Michaias/Michaeas/Micah Cécile Dogniez / Jan Joosten6.1.4. Joel Cécile Dogniez6.1.5. Abdiu/Abdias/Obadiah Cécile Dogniez6.1.6. Jonas/Jonah Cécile Dogniez6.1.7. Naoum/Nahum Heinz-Josef Fabry6.1.8. Ambakoum/Habacuc/Habakkuk Heinz-Josef Fabry6.1.9. Sophonias/Zephaniah Jong-Hoon Kim6.1.10. Aggaios/Aggaeus/Haggai Thomas Pola6.1.11. Zacharias/ZechariahThomas Pola6.1.12. Malachias/Malachi Cécile Dogniez6.2. Esaias/Isaias/Isaiah Arie van der Kooij6.3. Jeremiah Writings6.3.1. Jeremias/Ieremias/Jeremiah Pierre-Maurice Bogaert6.3.2. BaruchPierre-Maurice Bogaert6.3.3. Threnoi/Lamentationes/LamentationsFrank Ueberschaer6.3.4. Epistole Jeremiou / Epistola Ieremiae / Epistle of Jeremiah Benjamin Wright6.4. Iezekiel/Ezechiel/EzekielJohan Lust6.5. Daniel Writings6.5.1. Daniel Marco Settembrini6.5.2. Sousanna/Susanna/Susannah Heinz-Dieter Neef6.5.3. Bel kai Drakon / Bel et Draco / Bel and the DragonHeinz-Dieter Neef7. The Septuagint and the New Testament7.1. The Septuagint Text in Early ChristianityMartin Karrer7.2. The Significance of Septuagint Quotations in the New Testament against the Background of Old Testament Textual HistoryWolfgang Kraus
The field of Septuagint Studies stands wide open for exploration as never before. This reliable and up-to-date Introduction, written by an international team of specialists, offers an accessible port of entry for students and scholars eager to venture into this vast territory replete with riches yet to be discovered.~J. Ross Wagner, Associate Professor of New Testament, Director, Doctor of Theology Program, Duke Divinity School
This volume is clearly aimed at readers who are relatively new to consulting books in Greek found in the Old Testament.~J. K. Elliott, Novum Testamentum
[ Introduction to the LXX] certainly has the making of a standard reference work, which will not need to be replaced in any near future.~Johanna Erzberger, The Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies
This is a truly useful resource for those who work closely with the LXX and it is highly recommended.
This work is an ideal entry point for those interested in the LXX or those looking to acquaint themselves with the particularities of individual books of the LXX, but it is also of value as a reference work for those with a more advanced knowledge. The editor is to be commended for his excellent introductory essays and for assembling an eminent team of contributors that has resulted in chapters of a consistently high quality.~Bradley C. Gregory, Catholic Bible Quarterly
[Introduction to the Septuagint] is an excellent and affordable handbook on the Septuagint, an incredibly valuable resource for those interested in textual criticism of the Septuagint and adjacent questions about the composition and use of the text.~Joseph Scales, Reading Religion