Global Christianity and the Black Atlantic
Tuskegee, Colonialism, and the Shaping of African Industrial Education
Studies in World Christianity
219 Pages, 6.00 x 9.00 in, 1 b&w illus
- Published: February 2017
Many Europeans saw Africa’s colonization as an exhibition of European racial ascendancy. African Christians saw Africa’s subjugation as a demonstration of European technological superiority. If the latter was the case, then the path to Africa’s liberation ran through the development of a competitive African technology.
In Global Christianity and the Black Atlantic, Andrew E. Barnes chronicles African Christians’ turn to American-style industrial education—particularly the model that had been developed by Booker T. Washington at Alabama’s Tuskegee Institute—as a vehicle for Christian regeneration in Africa. Over the period 1880–1920, African Christians, motivated by Ethiopianism and its conviction that Africans should be saved by other Africans, proposed and founded schools based upon the Tuskegee model.
Barnes follows the tides of the Black Atlantic back to Africa when African Christians embraced the new education initiatives of African American Christians and Tuskegee as the most potent example of technological ingenuity. Building on previously unused African sources, the book traces the movements to establish industrial education institutes in cities along the West African coast and in South Africa, Cape Province, and Natal. As Tuskegee and African schools modeled in its image proved, peoples of African descent could—and did—develop competitive technology.
Though the attempts by African Christians to create industrial education schools ultimately failed, Global Christianity and the Black Atlantic demonstrates the ultimate success of transatlantic black identity and Christian resurgence in Africa at the turn of the twentieth century. Barnes’ study documents how African Christians sought to maintain indigenous identity and agency in the face of colonial domination by the state and even the European Christian missions of the church.
1. The Spectacle Reversed: Shaping the African Response to Missionary Christianity and European Conquest
2. Making People: Becoming Educators and Entrepreneurs at Hampton and Tuskegee
3. The Advancement of the African: Redefining Ethiopianism and the Challenge of Adversarial Christianity
4. An Attentive Ear: Hearing the Call of Booker T. and the Pathway to Industrial Education in West Africa
5. On the Same Lines as Tuskegee: Contesting Tuskegee and Government Intervention in South Africa
6. Men Who Can Build Bridges: Retrieving Washington’s Influence in the Work of Marcus Garvey and Thomas Jesse Jones
Andrew Barnes brings to life an important but largely forgotten world: the ‘Christian black Atlantic’ of the early twentieth century. Carefully interweaving African American history with the histories of Western and Southern Africa, he reveals the complex strategies by which African Christians addressed colonialism and white racism, inspired by Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee. An authoritative, illuminating, and absorbing book.~Richard H. Elphick, Emeritus Professor of History, Wesleyan University
In this rich, content-laden study, Barnes introduces us in depth to several significant figures on both sides of the Atlantic and to the vital role the African-edited newspapers played in the transmission of their ideas, African American leaders were especially widely quoted and reprinted in the newspapers….In short, this is a book that belongs in every missiological and African studies collection.~Richard V. Pierard, International Bulletin of Mission Research
With over three decades of serious scholarship on Christianity, Andrew Barnes demonstrates yet again that he is at the forefront of originality and innovative scholarship. He emphasizes, with remarkable skill and compassion, how Africans extended ideas of modernization and education, thereby transforming Christianity itself, in this impressive book on the connection between religion, change, and progress.~Toyin Falola, University Distinguished Teaching Professor and Jacob and Frances Mossiker Chair in the Humanities, University of Texas at Austin
...Barnes’s exploration of Ethiopianism to tell a different story about industrialism, civilization, and modernity is noteworthy. His work challenges the field of religious history to highlight a cadre of African educators and leaders who traveled from Africa to the United States and back, a tale that will surely inspire more conversations.~Jamil Drake, Journal of Religion in Africa
Barnes traces an overlooked but important episode in South and West African intellectual history during which Africans and African American leaders allied through the medium of Protestant Christianity to define and promote a program of educational reform designed to empower Africans in the modern world. He deftly advances our appreciation of how intellectual life in colonial Africa, too long constrained by notions of resistance and domination, is indeed rich with creative agendas for change which drew on Black Atlantic currents.~Philip S. Zachernuk, Dalhousie University, author of Colonial Subjects: An African Intelligentsia and Atlantic Ideas